Sunflower oil (SFO) is faced with serious oxidation problems during the deep-frying of Chinese Maye, and the search for natural antioxidants has become a focus of scientific research due to the potential toxicity of synthetic antioxidants. In the present study, the Foeniculum vulgare Mill. essential oil (FVEO), tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) were added to SFO for a 30 h deep frying experiment and the results showed that FVEO added to sunflower oil at 1 g/kg was similar to that of TBHQ-0.01 g/kg, and FVEO-1.5 g/kg would promote the oxidation of SFO. FVEO to sunflower oil also prominently restrained the decrease of the sensory properties of the fried product, Chinese Maye, including appearance, taste, flavor and overall acceptance by 24.2%, 20.2%, 46.1% and 56.0% (p < 0.01 or p < 0.05), respectively. The results indicated that FVEO could be used as a natural antioxidant to replace TBHQ in the deep-frying process of SFO, but further research is needed on the key antioxidant constituent of FVEO.
There is a need for an alternative method of producing a vegetable oil with high levels of unsaturated fatty acids and physical properties similar to solid fat. The objective of current work was to cut down the amount of oil absorbed by the finished product, increase the frying stability of sunflower oil, and fry potato chips using oleogel without harming their sensory quality. Rice bran wax was applied in this experiment, at rates of 2, 4, and 6 weight percent, and the generated oleogels were then utilized for four days in a succession to fry potato chips for four hours each day. The results suggested that potato chips could be fried using the sunflower oil-rice bran wax oleogel without having an adverse effect on their texture, color, or quality. Furthermore, the produced oleogel was more robust during frying than liquid sunflower oil. During intermittent frying, SFA levels also marginally rose in all samples with the exception of 4% oleogel. The control sample, which was sunflower oil, had the lowest levels of unsaturated fatty acids and poly unsaturated fatty acids at the end of the frying operation. The percentage of oil uptake by the potato chips in the oleogels containing 4 and 2% rice bran wax, on the other hand, was lower than in the control sample. The findings suggested that oleogels could be used as a deep-fat frying medium in household, commercial, and industrial settings.
The acute aquatic toxicity of anionic surfactants, including fatty acid salts, changes depending on water hardness. Generally, the acute aquatic toxicity of Daphnia magna is caused by the adsorption of surfactants and other substances. Despite the low environmental risk, the effect of water hardness on the acute aquatic toxicity of soap should be discussed to improve the assessment accuracy. Previously, we evaluated the effects of water hardness and the presence of an adsorbent on the acute aquatic toxicity of soap by performing an immobility test using D. magna in accordance with Japanese Industrial Standards (JIS) K 0229. Immobility was low at 50 ppm and a higher water hardness was indicated owing to the loss of interfacial activities caused by the formation of insoluble fatty acid calcium or magnesium complexes (soap scum). In the current study, we evaluate the effects of water hardness on the acute aquatic toxicity of C10, C12, C14, C16, and C18 saturated and C18:1 unsaturated fatty acid sodium salts. The EC50 is measured via an immobility test in accordance with JIS K 0229 using D. magna, and the surface tension is measured as an indicator of surface activity. Results show that the EC50 and surface tension curves change with water hardness in single and mixed solutions. C18:1 indicates the least change and the highest surface activity. Moreover, immobility change is not observed when C18:1 is filtered, whereas the immobility of other solutions decreased significantly. This implies the effect of soap scum on immobility, such as the clogging of gills by soap scum. Based on quantitative analysis, the percentage of C18:1 that transformed soap scum to its initial concentration exceeds 80%. This implies that calcium deficiency under 5 and 25 ppm water hardness affects the immobility of larval D. magna. The effects of soap scum clogging and calcium deficiency on D. magna should be considered before assessing the soap.
In vitro studies have shown flavonoids to be effective antioxidants. Flavonoid C-glycosides have antioxidant properties, but there are very few data on their cellular antioxidant activity. The chemical activities of violanthin against alpha amylase and sorbitol dehydrogenase were investigated utilizing the molecular docking study. The anti-cancer activities of the compounds were evaluated against MKN45, AGS, and KATO III cell lines. The chemical activities of violanthin against some of the expressed surface receptor proteins (estrogen receptor, folate receptor, and CD44) in the mentioned cell lines were estimated using molecular docking calculations. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide (MTT) analyzes were performed to determine the effects of compound on cell viability levels. The results showed the possible interactions and their features at an atomic level. The docking scores indicated that violanthin has a significant binding affinity to the enzymes and proteins. IC50 values of violanthin for gastric cell lines (MKN45, AGS, KATO III) were 31.95±3.95, 53.06±6.02, 47.98±5.16 µM, respectively. For α-amylase and sorbitol dehydrogenase enzymes, IC50 values were 25.03 and 1.47 µM. Moreover, this compound formed strong contact with the enzymes and receptors. Therefore, violanthin could be a potential inhibitor for these enzymes and cancer cells. Several secondary problems of diabetes mellitus have been discovered to be prevented or treated with sorbitol dehydrogenase inhibitors.
Acute liver injury (ALI), posing a serious threaten to our life, has emerged as a public health issue around the world. β-carotene has plenty of pharmacologic effects, such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antitumor activities. In this study, we focused on studying the protective role and potential molecular mechanisms of β-carotene against D-galactosamine (D-GalN) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced ALI. Our results indicated that β-carotene pretreatment effectively hindered abnormal changes induced by LPS/D-GalN in liver histopathology. Meanwhile, serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were downgraded with β-carotene pretreatment. β-carotene pretreatment also decreased malondialdehyde content and myeloperoxidase activity, increased glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase levels, and reduced the levels of tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) in liver tissues. Further investigations found that β-carotene mediated multiple signaling pathways in LPS/D-GalN-induced ALI, inhibiting NF-κB and MAPK signaling and upregulating the expression of Nrf2 and HO-1 proteins. All findings indicate that β-carotene appears to protect mice against LPS/D-GalN induced ALI by reducing oxidative stress and inflammation, possibly via regulating NF-κB, MAPK, and Nrf2 signaling.
Six optically active (Z)-7-decen-4-olide derivatives (1a-1f) were synthesized in 99% enantiomeric excess using diastereomeric resolution. The odour properties of the racemic and optically active 1a-1f were evaluated in terms of their orthonasal aromas. All of the stereoisomers had different odour characteristics and thresholds. Decen-4-olides (1a-1c) had a strong fruity note, whereas undecen-4-olide (1d and 1e) and dodecen-4-olide (1f) had a strong green note. For 7-alken-4-olides (1a, 1d, and 1f), the (R)-enantiomer had a lower odour threshold than the (S)-enantiomer. In contrast, no difference in the odour threshold was observed for the enantiomers of the 8-alken-4-olides (1b and 1e). Furthermore, the antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli (E. coli; ATCC 25922) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus; ATCC 29213) were investigated. Although the no differences in the antimicrobial activity of the stereoisomers was observed, 1d and 1e showed slight antimicrobial activity against E. coli, whereas only 1f showed antimicrobial activity against S. aureus. No antimicrobial activity was exhibited by (R)-1f, whereas (S)-1f exhibited strong antimicrobial activity.
The aim of this study was to characterize aroma compounds from Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis Mazel ex Houz. De ehaie) stem powders with a headspace solid phase microextraction - gas chromatography/mass spectrometry method and reconstruct the fresh stem aroma. A total of 32 aroma compounds were identified from the powders, comprising monoterpene hydrocarbons (40.03%), hydrocarbons (26.27%), aliphatic aldehydes (13.82%), norisoprenoids (7.93%), sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (3.40%), aliphatic ketones (2.47%), an aromatic alcohol (1.34%) and an acid (1.30%). The most abundant aroma compound was limonene (32.95%) and the absolute configuration and optical purities were determined as (R)-form with 98.17 ± 0.27% enantiomeric excess. The odor active values (OAVs) showed thirteen aroma active compounds (OAVs > 1.00) were determined, including seven aliphatic aldehydes, three monoterpene hydrocarbons, two norisoprenoids and one aliphatic ketone. We have compared the aroma profiles between the Moso bamboo stem powders and a reconstructed one on the basis of quantitative data and characterized the active compounds that can be responsible for the fresh stem aroma by sensory evaluation.
Supported anisotropic bimetallic nanocrystals are attractive owing to their potential for novel catalytic applications. Au-Pd nanocrystals are expected to have higher catalytic activity for alcohol oxidation than Au nanocrystals. However, only a few studies have reported the application of anisotropic Au-Pd nanocrystals as alcohol-oxidation nanocatalysts. Support materials such as Al2O3 and Fe2O3 influence the catalytic activity of spherical Au nanoparticles. Thus, optimization of the support is expected to improve the catalytic activity of anisotropic Au-Pd nanocrystals. Herein, we report the synthesis and catalytic performances of Al2O3- and Fe2O3-supported Au and Au-Pd nanoflowers. Au99-Pd1 NFs supported on Fe2O3 exhibited the highest catalytic activity for 1-phenylethyl alcohol oxidation.