スロット カジノ

Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Online ISSN : 1347-7439
Print ISSN : 0916-7250
ISSN-L : 0916-7250
Current issue
Displaying 1-7 of 7 articles from this issue
Veterinary Science Award Winner's (No.133) Commemorative Review
  • Yasuhiro TAKASHIMA
    2023 Volume 85 Issue 11 Pages 1146-1150
    Published: 2023
    Released on J-STAGE: November 02, 2023
    Advance online publication: September 28, 2023
    DOI
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS

    Many parasite species migrate to another site of infection after entering the host body. Such parasite dynamics are closely related to pathogenicity, but it is not easy to observe such parasite behavior deep within the organs. In recent years, technology that can make organs transparent has been developed that enables us to observe deep within organs ex vivo while maintaining their three-dimensional structure. This review describes a series of attempts to apply this technology to understand the behavior of Toxoplasma gondii in the host body. A series of studies has shown that T. gondii tachyzoites that infect leukocytes can reach target organs far from the site of invasion via the circulatory system. In addition, infected leukocytes in the bloodstream adhere more readily to vascular endothelial cells than uninfected leukocytes and are more likely to remain inside the target organs. When infected leukocytes adhere to the vascular endothelial cells of the target organ, the tachyzoites inside the cells immediately escape and infect the parenchyma of the organs. As described above, organ transparency technology is a powerful tool for understanding the internal dynamics of parasites.

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Pharmacology
  • Noriyuki KAJI, Kosuzu IWAOKA, Shinichiro NAKAMURA, Atsushi TSUKAMOTO
    2023 Volume 85 Issue 11 Pages 1151-1156
    Published: 2023
    Released on J-STAGE: November 02, 2023
    Advance online publication: September 21, 2023
    DOI
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS

    Postoperative ileus (POI) is a surgical complication that induces emesis and anorexia. Fuzapladib (FUZ), an inhibitor of leukocyte-function-associated antigen type 1 (LFA-1) activation, a leukocyte adhesion molecule, exerts anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting leukocyte migration into the inflammatory site. In this study, we examined the prophylactic impact of FUZ on POI in a mouse model. POI model mice were generated by intestinal manipulation, and the effect of FUZ on intestinal transit and the infiltration of inflammatory cells into the ileal muscularis externa was assessed. The increased number of macrophages was significantly suppressed by FUZ, whereas the infiltration of neutrophils into the ileal muscularis externa was not sufficiently inhibited in the POI model mice. Additionally, FUZ did not ameliorate delayed gastrointestinal transit in POI model mice. In conclusion, our results suggest that FUZ does not improve delayed gastrointestinal transit but partially inhibits inflammation in the ileal muscularis externa in POI model mice. FUZ may be a potential anti-inflammatory agent for the management of post-surgical inflammation.

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  • Yusei FUJIOKA, Kosuke OTANI, Tomoko KODAMA, Muneyoshi OKADA, Hideyuki ...
    2023 Volume 85 Issue 11 Pages 1157-1164
    Published: 2023
    Released on J-STAGE: November 02, 2023
    Advance online publication: October 02, 2023
    DOI
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS
    Supplementary material

    Cellular senescence is a highly stable state associated with cell cycle arrest, that is elicited in response to various stresses. The accumulation of senescent cells in tissues drives age-related diseases. Recent studies have shown that the cellular senescence enhances an extracellular vesicles (EV) secretion. EV are lipid-bilayer-capsuled particles released by various cells mediating cell-to-cell communication. It was recently reported that EV secreted by the senescent cells had several functions such as cancer cell proliferation and immune cell activation. In the present study, we investigated whether senescent cardiac fibroblasts-derived EV play an autocrine/paracrine role in the heart cells. Neonatal rat cardiac fibroblasts (NRCFs) were treated with doxorubicin (DOX) to induce cellular senescence. EV were isolated from NRCFs culture media. The vehicle-treated NRCFs-derived EV (D0-EV, 72 hr) increased a living cell number in NRCFs, which was attenuated by DOX (1,000 nM)-treated NRCFs-derived EV (D103-EV, 72 hr). While D0-EV did not affect protein concentration in NRCFs, D103-EV decreased it. Furthermore, D103-EV significantly increased a ratio of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3)-II to LC3-I in NRCFs, indicating an induction of autophagy. In addition, D103-EV increased phosphorylation of adenosine monophosphate-activated kinase (AMPK) α in NRCFs. In neonatal rat cardiomyocytes, however, NRCFs-derived EV (72 hr) had no effect on the living cell number, protein concentration, and ratio of LC3-II to LC3-I. In conclusion, we for the first time revealed that DOX-induced senescent NRCFs-derived EV induce autophagy in NRCFs perhaps partly through the activation of AMPKα.

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Physiology
  • Shiro KURUSU, Ryota TERASHIMA, Makoto SUGIYAMA, Miho TANAKA, Takuma KA ...
    2023 Volume 85 Issue 11 Pages 1165-1171
    Published: 2023
    Released on J-STAGE: November 02, 2023
    Advance online publication: October 02, 2023
    DOI
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS
    Supplementary material

    Though lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) shows a variety of regulatory roles in reproduction, its action mechanisms in the gestational organs are still largely unknown. We here characterized cellular distribution of its six kinds of specific receptors (LPA1-6) in rat uteri by immunohistochemistry and quantitatively analyzed changes in Lpar1-6 mRNAs expression throughout pregnancy. Among LPA1-6, evident expression of LPA3, LPA4, and LPA6 was immunologically detected and less expression of immunoreactive LPA1 and LPA2 was also found. Luminal and glandular epithelial cells, stromal cells, and myometrial cells are sites of positive immunoreactions, and they are all likely to express three or more subtypes. All of Lpar1-6 mRNAs were expressed, and their alterations were variable depending on subtypes and gestational age. The present information suggests that diverse actions of LPA in the uterus involve varied expression of LPA receptors dependent on tissue/cell types, receptor subtype(s), and organ reproductive states and helps to understand uterine biology of LPA.

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Surgery
  • Julia Oliveira Lima ZAHRA, Camila Zanetti SEGATTO, Gustavo Ricci ZANEL ...
    2023 Volume 85 Issue 11 Pages 1172-1179
    Published: 2023
    Released on J-STAGE: November 02, 2023
    Advance online publication: October 04, 2023
    DOI
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS

    The aim of this study was to compare the intra and postoperative analgesic effects of sacrococcygeal epidural levobupivacaine with those of lumbosacral levobupivacaine in feline ovariohysterectomy. Thirty-six cats were premedicated with intramuscular acepromazine (0.05 mg/kg) and meperidine (6 mg/kg). Anesthesia was induced with intravenous propofol and maintained with isoflurane in oxygen. The cats were randomly assigned one of the three treatments receiving 0.33% levobupivacaine (0.3 mL/kg) into the sacrococcygeal (S-C group, n=12) or lumbosacral (L-S group, n=12) epidural space, or the same volume of 0.9% saline solution into one of the epidural approaches (Control group, n=12). Intraoperatively, cardiorespiratory variables, end-tidal isoflurane concentration (FE´ISO), and fentanyl requirements were recorded. Postoperative pain was assessed by the UNESP (Universidade Estadual Paulista)-Botucatu multidimensional composite pain scale and the Glasgow feline composite measure pain scale up to 8 hr post-extubation. Morphine was administered as rescue analgesia. Overall FE´ISO and fentanyl requirements were lower in the L-S and S-C compared to the Control (P=0.002–0.048, respectively). There was no significant difference in the cardiorespiratory variables during anesthesia, postoperative pain and rescue analgesia among groups. The time to standing after anesthesia was prolonged in the L-S and S-C groups than in the Control (P<0.001). Lumbosacral and sacrococcygeal epidural levobupivacaine resulted in similar decreases in isoflurane requirements and intraoperative fentanyl supplementation in the cats, with no postoperative benefits.

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Virology
  • Kosuke SODA, Hirohisa MEKATA, Tatsufumi USUI, Hiroshi ITO, Yuto MATSUI ...
    2023 Volume 85 Issue 11 Pages 1180-1189
    Published: 2023
    Released on J-STAGE: November 02, 2023
    Advance online publication: September 26, 2023
    DOI
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS
    Supplementary material

    In the winter of 2021–2022, multiple subtypes (H5N8 and H5N1) of high pathogenicity avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) were confirmed to be circulating simultaneously in Japan. Here, we phylogenetically and antigenically analyzed HPAIVs that were isolated from infected wild birds, an epidemiological investigation of affected poultry farms, and our own active surveillance study. H5 subtype hemagglutinin (HA) genes of 32 representative HPAIV isolates were classified into clade 2.3.4.4b lineage and subsequently divided into three groups (G2a, G2b, and G2d). All H5N8 HPAIVs were isolated in early winter and had HA genes belonging to the G2a group. H5N1 HPAIVs belong to the G2b and G2d groups. Although G2b viruses were widespread throughout the season, G2d viruses endemically circulated in Northeast Japan after January 2022. Deep sequence analysis showed that the four HPAIVs isolated at the beginning of winter had both N8 and N1 subtypes of neuraminidase genes. Environmental water-derived G2a HPAIV, A/water/Tottori/NK1201-2/2021 (H5N8), has unique polymerase basic protein 1 and nucleoprotein genes, similar to those of low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses (LPAIVs). These results indicate that multiple H5 HPAIVs and LPAIVs disseminated to Japan via transboundary winter migration of wild birds, and HPAIVs with novel gene constellations could emerge in these populations. Cross-neutralization test revealed that G2a H5N8 HPAIVs were antigenically distinct from a G2b H5N1 HPAIV, suggesting that antibody pressure in wild birds was involved in the transition of the HPAIV groups during the season.

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Wildlife Science
  • Hee-Jong KIM, Cheongwoon CHO, Kyoo-Tae KIM
    2023 Volume 85 Issue 11 Pages 1190-1194
    Published: 2023
    Released on J-STAGE: November 02, 2023
    Advance online publication: September 12, 2023
    DOI
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS

    To our knowledge, ours is the first case of applying a 3D-printed prosthetic beak to an Oriental stork (Ciconia boyciana). A stork in captivity underwent several surgeries for beak fractures, but the lower-mandible fractures failed to be repaired. Therefore, we applied a patient-specific beak prosthesis of titanium alloy and nylon. Because the prosthetic beak could not be maintained due to mandible and soft-tissue inflammation, the stork was euthanized. Still, we confirmed typical behavior and feeding for ~3 months after surgery. This report highlights some of the challenges we encountered and identifies process improvements required for a more successful surgery.

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